Media Revision – Technological convergence

Technological convergence has led to the rise of Video on Demand (VOD) as a distribution method for films.  Technologies such as tablets, smartphones, laptops, and smart TVs has helped convergence as it has allowed audiences to access film content via the internet. This can be through streaming sites like Netflix and Amazon Prime (Indies) or Disney Life (Disney). There are no Disney films or TV programs on Netflix as Disney has there own streaming site and Netflix caters to independent films. This has benefited indies as they can get more exposure from their films instead of Disney towering over them. Their has been a huge increase in streaming sites as Netflix has become the most popular over the years and DVD sales are decreasing. (Distribution)

Star Wars use technological convergence within their phone app as it brings together games trailers and access to buy tickets for the movie. These features bring more hype to the movie as it involves many things linked with the movie. Such as a alternate reality hologram where the consumer has to scan a poster and a stormtrooper’s hologram will appear.  These fun little activities engage the audience more which encourages them to watch the movie as they want to know more about the move. This has helped audiences to become prosumers as they use Star Wars

Disney Infinity 

The convergence between film and video games. The game was created by Disney interactive studios and developed by Avalanche software which used to be independent but was bought by Disney and by Bandai Namco which is independent. This shows how the synergy between these institutes has helped to develop a game that audiences enjoy. The game has characters ranging from Toy Story to Marvel characters and Star Wars characters. This highlights how Disney are able to attract a range of audiences to play their game. Audiences have created reviews, blogs and videos on YouTube. This is an examples of secondary circulation and how audiences are becoming Prosumers.(Consumption)

 

Independent

VOD benefits independent producers as it lowers distribution costs, and allowing more films to be distributed digitally to their audience.  An example of this is the British film ‘Pulp’ (2012) which became the first film to premiere on the Xbox (an example of technological convergence).  ‘Pulp’ was not given a theatrical or DVD release, meaning that games console platform allowed it to be distributed to an audience.

Independent producers have made use of the opportunity to use VOD platforms as part of day-and-date release strategies which maximise audience awareness around one release date.  Examples include ‘Mum and Dad’ and ‘A Field in England’.

Technological convergence can help Independent institutes by the use of social media and apps on smart phones. An independent film could release a trailer on YouTube and then audiences can share the video across their social media. This is secondary circulation and audience prosumers. Technological convergence has also helped indies as audiences can research the film, watch a trailer and share information of the film on one device. This has benefited independent institutes as their film can be advertised for free due to secondary circulation. 

I personally use my phone to view the trailer of a film and If I like it I research it on the internet and tell my friends about it via social media.

 

Example Paragraphs

Without doubt digital technologies have revolutionised the way global audiences consume products from the film industry. In particular, web 2.0 has facilitated a new interactive and immersive environment for audiences. Like all film institutions, Disney continually is trying to saturate the internet with content and because their budget is incredibly high, it is easy for the institution to exploit this arena. A fantastic example of Disney utilising web 2.0 is…whilst conglomerates such as Disney find web 2.0 very lucrative, independents are also able to take advantage because…example…However, Marxists would contend that there is an illusion of choice because most consumers are creatures of habit and they are drawn to the major online institutions such as Google, Facebook, IMDB where companies such as Disney have a huge adverting presence.

CONSUMPTION
Moreover, web 2.0 is not the only way institutions can encourage audiences to consume in interactive and immersive ways. Disney infinity…Disney life…However, this domination of the digital sphere is often derided by many critics because it is seen as a form of Disneyfication. Not only is Disney dominating the animation industry (horizontal integration), the institution is also able to manipulate other media industries such as TV streaming, online social networks and the gaming industry (vertical integration). This is seen as cultural imperialism and therefore it has the opposite effect of the designs of media pluralism. It is very hard for children to avoid Disney’s reach and it could be argued that there is a lack of variety for children to consume.

PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION

Computer animation – global illumination…Nevertheless, it is also a sign of dumbing down because audiences are confined to the imaginary worlds of one institution (albeit one with subsidiaries).

Media Revision: Adverting and Marketing

Marketing

Synergy and Cross-Media Convergence

The use of synergy and cross-media convergence was key to the success of ‘The Avengers’ (2012).  Disney bought Marvel Entertainment is 2009, and oversaw the release of a series of films such as Iron Man, and Hulk which built towards the release of ‘The Avengers’ film.  An extensive range of merchandise for the Marvel characters helped to increase brand awareness and generate ancillary revenue, as a result of synergy between the studio division, and the Disney Stores and merchandise divisions.

Star Wars the Force Awakens 

Disney uses social media to market their products. For Star Wars the Force Awaken the unique hashtag ‘#forcefriday’ allows the audience to access content that just links to star wars and nothing else, it also helps them communicate to others who are interested in the Star Wars movie. The hashtag becomes a trend and it can go viral meaning more people will be able to see it and brings more people to be engaged with the movie. This is a use of exchange and secondary circulation. This is a long tail for Disney as audiences are interacting with their products as free advertising.

The John Lewis Christmas advert is one of the most eagerly anticipated adverts of the year in the UK. The original version of this advert received huge public attention and was very successful.

This parody version by The Poke is a superb example of the potential of new and digital media for institutions such as Walt Disney. Effectively, secondary circulation such as this is advertising the film for free. It has reached over 850,000 views on YouTube and helps to keep the franchise in the public consciousness. Moreover, it is a very useful synergy for both John Lewis and Star Wars because it is linking two very popular products together in a fresh and funny way that is immersive for audiences

Independent

Viral marketing was used effectively to promote the release of the independent US horror film ‘The Last Exorcism’ (2010).  Using the social media website Chatroulette users began online chats with a teenage girl who then appeared to become demonic.  A video of user reactions was then released on YouTube, gaining over 8 million views.  This was a cost effective way of generating interest in the film and creating word of mouth.  The use of websites such as Chatroulette and YouTube (Synergy) also helped the film to appeal to their target demographic of young adults. The reaction was then shared across social media making audiences prosume and was a use of secondary circulation.

 

Advertising 

Disney have vertical intergration with ABC and ESPN. This has allowed them to advertise their products for free to audiences that watch these channels. Disney are horizontally intergrated with Star Wars (Lucas film).

Disney premiered the final trailer for Star Wars: The Force Awakens during halftime of ESPN’s Monday Night Football on October 19 (their company).

The final trailer for the Force Awakens was shown live during halftime of ESPN’s Monday night football. This was clever as loads of people watch football in America so Disney knew that they were going to get a large viewing. They were able to do this has they have convergence with ESPN as they are vertically intergrated. They also aired it on their own TV channel which meant they can get more money out of it. This had a very large ‘reach’.  After the trailer was aired, people watching shared the news over social media so that everyone else could see and know that there was a new trailer. Disney got secondary circulation form the trailer as audiences shared it around. I am a huge Star Wars fan so as soon as I found out I shared it on my social media.

Google is one of the biggest companies in the media. Nearly everyday people use Google as a search engine. Disney took advantage of this and made a deal with Google. The Awaken the Force Within program. Users can log on and decide if they want to be on the Light Side or Dark Side of the Force. Once the allegiance is selected, various Google apps will transform to reflect the path chosen. Special experiences have been developed for apps such as Google Calendar, Chrome, and YouTube. There are also added features to discover with Gmail, Google Translate, and Google Search. This has added to the excitement and hype of the film as it has a very large ‘reach’. good use of Synergy

Media Revison: Distribution

  • Release Dates

    Star Wars the Force Awakens: UK release date: 17 December 2015 VS. USA release date 18 December 2015. Star Wars TFA was mostly filmed in Pinewood Studios. This is because Disney have good brand equity which means they are able to have synergy with other studios. This is probably meant the release date was earlier in the UK. Also, The film stars two British actors.

DVD’s coming out quicker to stop illegal piracy.

Cultural changes-  Zootopia (USA) was released on the 4th March 2016 whereas, Zootropolis (UK) released on the 25th March 2016. Zootopia (USA) had a $75 million opening weekend.

 

Independent

Withoutabox – This is a website in which indie film makers are able to upload their films to the website and can then be seen at film festivals like Sundance. It’s free to use for videos under 10GB. Example – ‘Foxed’ was a short film that then got shown at film festivals and had got a deal to become a feature length film. This website is helping to democratise the internet. It is hard for independent institutes to distribute their films as they don’t have the money or distribution companies to help them. One of the best ways for indies to get their films seen is film festivals. For example, Sundance has helped indies get publicity and then get distribution companies to buy the rights to the film. One film that came out last year called Swiss Army Man was shown at Sundanese and featured A list actors like Paul Dano and Daniel Radcliffe. A24 then bought the distribution rights to the film and later got it to a select few cinemas.

Disney have vertical and horizontal intergration allowing them to earn profits from all stages of distribution (Advertising, marketing). This means they can easily create a film and then distribute for free across all their platforms. E.G Social media, TV channels (ABC, ESPN)

 

Synergy

Streaming sites help indies to gain attention. Sites like Netflix and Hulu have catered to indie films. Whereas, Disney don’t need streaming sites as their brand image is large enough for audiences to be attracted to them. Young and older audience have connections to Disney as older audiences grew up with them and younger audience are  growing up with them. Benefit for Disney as their mass audience help to prosume their media products. This is a form of secondary circulation. Disney have their own streaming site called Disney Life.

Media Revision: Production

Narrative

The narrative of films/diegesis is more important then the visual spectacle. John Lasseter believed the story drives  the film. For Example, Toy Story – He decided to keep the same animation style throughout to keep the verisimilitude similar as he didn’t want to make the animation look incredibly better. That’s why Toy Story 2 and 3 look like the first one. In Toy Story, the intertextuality of the Luxo Jr. ball was used. Wall-E was more about the narrative as it had social commentary on what the future could hold for us after climate change and the human nature. Also, the first 30 minutes of Wall-E had no dialogue, this meant the film focused on the world that was being created.

Independent institute – Studio Ghibli – Spirited Away and Howls Moving Castle focus on the narrative.

Renderman/Technology 

Some improvements were made by Pixar in which they used Global illumination and Ray tracing in Toy Story 2 to make it look improved and more sophisticated. An example of this is when Woody is getting sown back together and re-painted, we see light reflect off his head and his shoes. I personally liked this scene very much as it was very satisfying to watch. Visceral – Active audience

Aardman animations – They use stop animation to create films like Wallace and Gromit and Shaun the Sheep. Successful independent institution.

CAPS (Computer animation production system)

 convergence between traditional hand drawn animation and computer animation

The convergence of traditional hand drawn Disney animation with computer animation was a massive success for films such as Lion King (1994), The Little Mermaid (1989). The use of CAPs allowed for multiplane shots, camera movements and 3 dimensional elements. CAPS was a collection of software and assorted hardware such as scanning camera systems, servers, networked computer workstations, and custom desks developed by The Walt Disney Company together with Pixar in the late-1980sused for animation to mimic camerawork, Transparent shading, blended colors and other sophisticated techniques could be extensively used that were not previously available. Examples – Beauty and the Beast (camera sweep), Lion King (Mufasa on cliff side with wilder beasts charging) – Increases verisimilitude as it makes it look like live action camerawork, caters the adult audience

challenges animation – The incredible – first all human cast for PIXAR.

 

 

 

Media Revision: Cross-Media convergence

Cross-Media convergence 

Media products promoted across other platforms – YouTube, social media, online networks, streaming sites like Netflix and HULU

The Walt Disney Company is an example of cross-media convergence as it produces and distributes a wide range of different types of media.  Disney is made up of five different divisions, including:

Divisions
Subsidiaries

The development of the Avengers Alliance Facebook game is another example of cross-media convergence and synergy, with the Disney Interactive division developing a game to promote the Avengers film through social media.

Disney’s Instagram has over 9 million followers. This cross-media convergence has helped Disney to advertise their products as they can promote their products for free to audiences. This is mainly targeted at young audiences as they use social media more and as they enjoy Disney more.

The cross-media convergence between Disney and ABC and ESPN has lead to them becoming vertically intergrated. This has helped Disney to market and advertise their films for free.

Independent

Independent institutes don’t have the same brand image or brand equity as Disney and don’t have vertical or horizontal intergration with other institutes. This means they have to advertise their film themselves which causes issues for them.

Streaming sites like Netflix has helped Independent institutes to gain publicity for their films and audiences to gain interest in them. Independent institutes use social media to advertise their films. This means audiences can view information on the film and learn more about it. Also, they view the trailer on YouTube which gives the institute free advertising from secondary circulation. Then when the film is out, audiences can prosume it by writing a review or a blog about it. For example, the YouTube channel Screen Junkies have review on independent films and commercial films form the ‘big six’. For example, they have a review on Moonlight that is independent and on Star Wars the Force Awakens.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Example Paragraphs

Without doubt digital technologies have revolutionised the way global audiences consume products from the film industry. In particular, web 2.0 has facilitated a new interactive and immersive environment for audiences. Like all film institutions, Disney continually is trying to saturate the internet with content and because their budget is incredibly high, it is easy for the institution to exploit this arena. A fantastic example of Disney utilising web 2.0 is…whilst conglomerates such as Disney find web 2.0 very lucrative, independents are also able to take advantage because…example…However, Marxists would contend that there is an illusion of choice because most consumers are creatures of habit and they are drawn to the major online institutions such as Google, Facebook, IMDB where companies such as Disney have a huge adverting presence.

CONSUMPTION
Moreover, web 2.0 is not the only way institutions can encourage audiences to consume in interactive and immersive ways. Disney infinity…Disney life…However, this domination of the digital sphere is often derided by many critics because it is seen as a form of Disneyfication. Not only is Disney dominating the animation industry (horizontal integration), the institution is also able to manipulate other media industries such as TV streaming, online social networks and the gaming industry (vertical integration). This is seen as cultural imperialism and therefore it has the opposite effect of the designs of media pluralism. It is very hard for children to avoid Disney’s reach and it could be argued that there is a lack of variety for children to consume.

PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION

Computer animation – global illumination…Nevertheless, it is also a sign of dumbing down because audiences are confined to the imaginary worlds of one institution (albeit one with subsidiaries).

Media Revision: Synergy

Synergy – two things come together to make a better thing – Disney and Marvel, Disney and Pixar

Disney have been described as the ‘masters of media synergy’, and have developed a range of multi-platform brands, such as Hannah Montana which included a television series, theatrically released film, soundtrack albums, magazines, merchandise, and online games.  Using synergy in this way helps Disney to maximise ancillary revenue and maintain brand awareness and keeps their brand image and brand equity high.

Disney made extensive use of synergy to promote the release of ‘Toy Story 3’ (2010).  This included holding a Toy Story Day on the Disney Channel prior to the release of the film, and the release of a video game by Disney Interactive.  The key advantage of synergy is that it maximises revenue whilst promoting the brand, and benefits all the subsidiaries involved.  The Toy Story Day would attract viewers to the Disney Channel, whilst simultaneously promoting the release of the film. The film was also promoted on ABC which Disney are vertically intergrated with.

The development of the Avengers Alliance Facebook game is another example of cross-media convergence and synergy, with the Disney Interactive division developing a game to promote the Avengers film through social media. The synergy between Disney and Facebook.

This demonstrates the way in which cross-media convergence and synergy allow major conglomerates to maximise revenue from a film brand, and help a range of subsidiaries to be successful.  The successful use of synergy is another factor in the continued dominance of the film industry by the Big Six studios, as independent companies do not have the opportunity or resources to use synergy on the same scale as the studios.

Synergy – consumption

Disney trailers shown before films in cinema are targeted at the right age group.

 

Independent

Indie institutes use synergy to produce their films as they don’t have the resources themselves. This isn’t a problem for Disney as they have Horizontal and vertical integration. An example of this is how Disney own Buena Vista. They are a distribution company that distribute Disney films.  Whereas, independent institutes like Bold films used Synergy with Blumhouse Productions to create the film Whiplash.

TV Drama Elements

MISE EN SCENE:

  • Costume
  • Lighting
  • Production Design
  • Props
  • Performance (body deep/shallow focus, depth oflanguage, facial expressions)

CINEMATOGRAPHY:

  • Close up
  • Extreme close up
  • Long Lighting shot
  • Mid shot
  • Two shot
  • POV
  • High/low/canted angle
  • Over the shoulder
  • Composition
  • Framing
  • Rule of thirds
  • Tracking
  • Panning
  • Zooming
  • Tilting
  • Craning
  • Depth of field

SOUND:

  • Bridge
  • Motif
  • Non-diegetic/diegetic
  • Ambient sound
  • Instrumentals
  • Soundtrack
  • Tone
  • Tempo
  • Dialogue
  • Sound effects

EDITING: 

  • Fast/slow pace
  • Long/short takes
  • Fade
  • Dissolve
  • Cut
  • Transition
  • 180 degree rule
  • Montage/continuity editing
  • Match on action
  • Eye line match
  • Cross cutting/parallel editing
  • Simultaneous action